Lead federal agency charged with improving the quality, safety, efficiency, and effectiveness of health care for the United States. Focuses on synthesizing the evidence and facilitating the translation of evidence-based research. Expert commentary on issues of interest and importance to the clinical guideline community.
Research including systematic reviews, ongoing and completed trials, questionnaires, and economic evaluations. For example, continuing with our question regarding complications after ADR versus fusion, which type of database listed in the table makes the most sense to search?
Indexed peer-reviewed articles will give us the best available and most current data and MEDLINE, which includes millions of citations for biomedical articles and can be accessed using PubMed for free, seems like a great starting place. Generally speaking, PubMed will be the best place to begin your search and there are various ways, as you will see below, to refine and limit your search in order to find exactly what you need.
Now that you have an answerable question and an idea of what type of database you need to search at least to start , let's talk about the nuts and bolts of searching. For the purposes of this paper, we will use PubMed as the search engine. To retrieve more information about the search results, use the display settings menu upper left corner to view the abstract or MEDLINE formats, change the number of items that appear per page, and sort by recently added, publication date, first author, last author, journal, or title.
PubMed also contains links to full-text articles appears in upper right corner of page at participation publishers' web sites as well as links to other third party sites such as libraries and sequencing centers. Clicking on the title would bring up the abstract Abstract format. MeSH terms are organized in a hierarchy called a tree, with more specific narrower terms arranged beneath broader terms. Inclusion of MeSH terms enhances and optimizes the search strategy. Therefore, PubMed would retrieve every article containing any of the terms located under Spine in the hierarchy.
MeSH vocabulary contains over 25, descriptors and is updated weekly and reviewed annually. Features include:. Allows you to identify and select appropriate MeSH terms for a search and to see their definitions. Focuses searches using other types of MeSH terms including publication types [pt], substance names [nm] or registry numbers [rn], and pharmaceutical actions [pa]. Clinical queries: put the MeSH term into the Clinical Queries box where the search may be further refined. Replace general search terms with more specific terms the MeSH database would be a great resource for this.
NOT between search terms returns only records that contain the first term and not the second. Truncate terms. PubMed searches the first variations of a truncated term.
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Use a wildcard. Let's say we are interested in what the best surgical treatment is for osteoporotic spine fractures. By combining terms using Boolean logic , truncating a term, and using the limits option we were able to narrow our search down from 16, articles to a more manageable and relevant 54 articles. One of the best resources that PubMed provides for users new to the database is the online tutorials. They are brief but informative and because they are interactive you are guided step-by-step through each process. Perhaps consulting the online tutorials and the fact sheets on PubMed would be a next step for you.
Give it a try! Remember, literature searching is a combination of an art and a science. It requires practice, intuition, and some trial and error. While there is a basic structure, a set of guidelines and many tools for assisting one with basic searches, there are a variety of nuances and advanced techniques that may be required for more specialized searches. For systematic reviews as an example, extensive searches are required and may take numerous hours, involving many databases including those for gray literature , and a combination of advanced search strategies in order to be methodologically sound.
Use of personnel with specialized expertise in conducting such searches may provide the best results and be the most resource effective. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Evid Based Spine Care J. Erika D. Ecker 1 and Andrea C. Skelly 1. Ecker 1 Spectrum Research, Inc. Andrea C.
How one man took on the French betting system — and kept winning against the odds
Skelly 1 Spectrum Research, Inc. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Address for correspondence Andrea Skelly moc.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Constructing an appropriate question Asking the right question is the primary key to creating a winning search. Included Excluded Patients Degenerative disc disease at one level of the lumbar spine All other diagnoses ie, tumor, trauma ; 2- or 3-level disc disease; cervical disease Intervention Artificial disc replacement Comparator Fusion Outcome Death, infection, subsidence and migration, loss of disc height, heterotopic ossification and spontaneous fusion, reoperation All other complications.
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What is the incidence of complications following ADR versus fusion of the lumbar spine? What is the incidence of complications following ADR versus fusion for degenerative disc disease of the lumbar spine? About a third of the way through this book I worked out that I had an unbeatable system for winning at the horses. All I would need was a degree in mathematics, or access to someone who has one, a lot of research on horses, jockeys and racecourses under my belt, including inside knowledge, and a little seed money.
By the end of the book I reverted to my original opinion: that it is not for the likes of me. They smelled a rat, and started withholding his winnings. But Des Moutis did not take this lying down: he may have had the manners of a gentleman — everyone agreed about that — but he was damned if he was going to let any jumped-up functionary deny him what he had won, he insisted, fair and square.
Things began to look bad, though, when certain races started having unusual results — and Des Moutis still won. Here his story becomes murky, if more colourful: he became mixed up with gangsters from Paris, Marseille and Corsica, and if they did not literally pull the trigger that finally sealed his fate, they may as well have. The book is surprisingly gripping, my surprise stemming from the fact that my interest in horse racing — both itself and the attendant lifestyle — is tenuous at best. Jamie Reid, a very knowledgeable writer on racing, lets the gangsters off only a little less easily, but I suppose we are meant to supply our own outrage about them; and besides, in those days it was considered chic in society to have a few dangerous friends.
The book has the typical, forgivable flaw of the genre — the hyperbolic subtitle. James Delingpole. Paul Dacre. Douglas Murray.
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