Price is not an issue. Early adopters enter at the growth stage Adopt innovations after acceptance by the previous groups and usually because of social pressure or because the price has fallen Early Majority Laggards Slightly above average in terms of education and disposable income. Last into the market.
Often buy when Innovators have moved on to new innovations 42 The Adoption Process Rate of Diffusion dependent upon: Communicability — The easier the product benefits can be communicated, the faster the diffusion occurs Trialability — If it is possible to have a trial before purchase then the faster the diffusion will occur Relative Advantage — Advantages over and above the products previously marketed.
Changes can be aimed at cost reductions Imitative products Copycat products produced by others, but where there is a market for many alternative and competing versions 52 The New Product Development Process Idea Generation — From market research or gleaned from the market via sales people. Does it add value to the portfolio? This often happens in categories where they have no choice, e. However, organizations tend to aim higher than survival. Marginal pricing Offering a special price Ensuring profit is still made 2. Quantity discounting 3. Differential pricing High fixed costs The relevant application of seasonal timings Benefits both the producer and the consumer 4.
Other elements of the mix are used to build high quality perception.
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Therefore, pricing needs to be used with some flexibility to meet those requirements. You should be able to show how you might achieve this level of flexibility n The critical success factors in relation to price are to maintain the organization objectives, whilst at the same time remaining sensitive to customer needs n The key to price is to link the product quality with a clear indication of value for money.
Pitch the price at the right level — it may be the difference between success and failure n Go to www.
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The list is extensive. The longer the channel length the greater the loss of control the marketer has Selective — More specialist retailers required, e.
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Who sets price? Who holds title to the goods? Who is responsible for quality? Who provides after-sales support and warranty?
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Ensure that the key concepts of intermediaries, channels and channel selection criteria are clear in your mind n Be confident in your ability to discuss new emerging alternatives to distribution, in particular various e-technologies that support and underpin the distribution process n Be prepared to make a decision on channel options, based upon clear justifications of choice n Channel management and channel selection is a key marketing activity and it is important to ensure that you can find new and innovative ways of meeting customer needs and wants n Ensure that you are confident with the broader complexities of distribution, the challenges, costs, logistical arrangements and how they must be managed to meet different channel stakeholders n There is increasing evidence of mergers and acquisitions closely related to distribution economies n Go to www.
A look at the process of communication demonstrates why all are not remembered. Communication involves: The customers are informed via the use of promotion or marketing communications The promotional element of the marketing mix is very costly and it is therefore essential that the company: Sends the correct message To the correct audience Using the most appropriate media Sender — the person or company wishing to communicate a message Encoding — translating the message into signs and symbols that the receiver will understand and react positively to Channel — chosen media to transmit the message, e.
The basis of this strategy is to promote directly to the suppliers, therefore pushing the products down the line to reach the customers throughout various channel members Pull Strategy — This strategy operates in contrast to the push strategy and requires the manufacturer to create demand for the product through direct communication with the customers. Aims and objectives of direct marketing Responsibilities of direct marketing n Increasing direct mail order levels from new and existing customers n Ensuring an appropriate database that is effective in reaching targets n To increase provision of information to aid information and adoption n Defining the appropriate techniques, e.
How far should this policy affect the operations? Karen Beamish. Diana Luck.
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